Parasitic Disease Preventative
Item No. 37111, 1 fl oz; Item No. 37144,
4 fl oz
PURPOSE AND BENEFIT
Chelated Copper is a precisely formulated copper solution for the prevention
and treatment of the two most serious marine protozoan parasites, Oodinium
ocellatum and Cryptocaryon irritans. These protozoans are commonly found
on newly acquired fishes. If not controlled, they can cause extensive
mortalities. The use of copper ion for the control of these protozoans
has been well established, and is still considered the drug of choice
for treatment. Chelated Copper, when used as directed at a concentration
of 0.25 ppm, is safe and effective in the control of these dangerous
A chelating agent is a compound which strongly binds metal ions (i.e.
copper) and forms a stable complex under specified conditions. The process
of "chelation" confers upon the chemical complex some important
The advantages of using Kordon's Chelated Copper are: (1) The formulation
resists precipitation and adsorption by coral, aquarium substrates,
and activated carbon. There is an extremely slow removal of the compound
from the aquarium system. (2) Traditional usage with copper-citric acid
solutions necessitates the need for frequent additions of solution.
The free ion in such solutions, when added to seawater, is quickly removed.
When using Kordon's Chelated Copper, the aquarist need not make such
frequent additions to an aquatic system, since it is stable within the
pH range of 2.0-8.5. (3) Chelation renders the metal ion less toxic.
The formulation can be used at higher dosages with marine fishes with
less fear of toxicity. Kordon's Chelated Copper is an essential medication
for all marine aquarists, and should be available at all times for the
treatment of marine fishes.
GENERAL DIAGNOSIS OF PARASITIC DISEASES OF FISHES
The following brief summary of clinical signs often associated with
the parasitic protozoans discussed above is intended only as an aid
for the beginning aquarist. It is not to be thought of as a definitive
diagnostic key. It is also important that the aquarist consult appropriate,
accurate references for more specific information regarding disease
problems of marine fishes. In addition, if possible, skin and/or gill
smears should be made and examined by a qualified fish diagnostician.
Microscopic examination is recommended and is always essential for confirmation
of a particular disease. In the clinical signs indicated below, a particular
description may be followed by a specific disease causing organism in
brackets. This indicates that there is a high probability that the cause
of the disease you observed on the fish is the organism indicated in
the brackets. It should be qualified that different clinical signs can
be seen during the disease process and that these can occur as the result
of more than one disease causing organism.
Increased respiration; hemmorrhagic body lesions; loss of normal body
coloration; scratching on objects or tank bottom; white opaque to grayish
papules on skin, gills and eyes of the host [Cryptocaryon]; randomly
distributed powdery or dust-like spots on body, having a yellowish cast
Contains 0.192% copper from reagent grade copper sulfate, formulated
with a powerful, nontoxic, food grade chelating agent.
Dosage: Add 1 teaspoon (approximately 5 ml) per 10 gallons of water.
This produces a concentration of 0.25 ppm. When treating at the recommended
dose, 4 ounces will treat 240 gallons of water.
MODE OF ACTION
Although the exact mechanism is not understood biochemically, it is
believed that copper ion interferes with the activity of certain enzymes
by disrupting the structure of disullide bonds in the parasites' cells,
causing irreversible damage to the proteins.
Chelated Copper is stable indefinitely. Keep tightly closed when not
in use to prevent evaporation and increased concentration of the solution.
Kordon's Chelated Copper is compatible with Trichlorfon and Methylene
Blue. This product should not be combined with any other drug. NovAqua®
and PolyAqua® will remove free unchelated copper ions from solution.
This medication is not indicated for the treatment of fungal, bacterial,
or viral infections of marine or freshwater fishes. The use of Kordon's
Chelated Copper is primarily recommended for the prevention and control
of Oodinium ocellatum and Cryptocaryon irritans.
When used as directed, Kordon's Chelated Copper is nontoxic for use
in marine aquaria. Except for the time required for treatment, extended
continuous exposure of fishes to higher concentrations of copper (above
0.25 ppm) is not recommended. Marine fishes ingest large quantities
of water, so constant exposure to excessive copper concentrations in
the water could be detrimental to their health. Suggestions have been
made that such long time exposures could induce pathological damage
to the internal organs.
Certain species of butterflyfishes and clownfishes may demonstrate
a sensitivity to higher concentrations, which in the early stages can
be reflected by a lack of appetite or complete cessation in feeding.
In such cases, the copper concentration should be reduced, or the fish
moved to another aquarium for individual treatment at a lower concentration.
SUGGESTED TREATMENT PROCEDURES
The following procedures are suggested for marine fishes. A copper test
kit is necessary to monitor copper in the water in order to assure the
proper therapeutic dosage for the successful control of the parasites.
In addition, the treatment period must continue for not less than 10
days. The life cycles of the parasites vary with environmental conditions,
especially temperature and salinity, hence the requirement for the specific
treatment period. Aquariums treated for less than 10 days may experience
a reinfection. All newly acquired marine fishes should be treated as
indicated in a separate quarantine tank before introduction to an established
Prevention or treatment of Oodinium ocellatum and/or Cryptocaryon irritants:
(a) Transfer all invertebrates to another holding tank.
(b) Calculate the actual volume of water to be treated, taking into
consideration the displacement of water by gravel, rock, coral, etc.
(c) Add 1 teaspoon of Chelated Copper solution per 10 gallons of water.
This produces a concentration of 0.25 ppm.
(d) Add subsequent doses only as necessary to bring the concentration
up to the initial concentration. A test kit is required to monitor the
copper level. For example, if after performing a subsequent copper test,
a result of 0.125 ppm is obtained, in the tank for which the volume
is 10 gallons, you would add 1/2 teaspoon of Kordon's Chelated Copper
solution. This addition would bring the concentration level back to
0.25 ppm. Note: The minimum copper ion concentration recommended for
treatment is 0.25 ppm. In some parasitic infestations, it may be necessary
to increase the copper concentration beyond the minimum dosage. Further
additions should be made in increments of 0.25 ppm. For example, if
an aquarium is treated with the minimum dosage of 0.25 ppm, and within
24 hours an improvement in the fishes condition is not observed, additional
copper solution should be added to increase the concentration to 0.50
ppm. Chelated Copper may be used up to 2.0 ppm maximum, if required.
However, caution should be exercised (see Toxicity) when using concentrations
higher than 0.25 ppm.
(e) At the conclusion of the treatment period, make a partial water
change of up to 50% in order to remove any excess copper. Additional
changes may be necessary. Add NovAqua®. Continue to monitor the
copper level. Invertebrates should not be returned to the tank until
the copper concentration is below a level that is toxic to invertebrates.
Copper is highly toxic to invertebrates. If treatment is carried out
in an established aquarium, all invertebrates must be transferred to
a separate facility.