Controls diseases caused by external parasites
Item No. 37844, 4 fl oz - 37856, 16 fl oz
- 37861, 1 gallon
PURPOSE AND BENEFITS
Formalin·3 is a convenient, pre-diluted form of formalin (37%
formaldehyde solution) and is scientifically recognized as an effective
medication for the treatment and control of the diseases caused by fungi,
protozoans and monogenetic trematodes of freshwater and marine aquarium
fishes. Formalin·3 will control or prevent diseases of fishes
caused by the following disease organisms: Ichthyophthirius (freshwater
"ich"), Costia, Chilodonella, Ambiphyra, Cryptocaryon (saltwater
"ich"), Epistylis, Oodinium, Amyloodinium, and Trichodina.
Formalin·3 is also effective against the common external fungal
infections of fishes and their eggs caused by Achyla and Saprolegnia.
Extensive literature exists which supports these disease treatment claims,
as well as its use in the control of certain external bacterial infections.
GENERAL DIAGNOSIS OF PARASITIC DISEASES OF FISHES
The following is a brief summary of the clinical signs often associated
with the diseases mentioned above; it is intended only as an aid for
the beginning aquarist, and is not to be considered a definitive diagnostic
key. It is important that the aquarist consult appropriate references
for more specific information regarding aquarium fish diseases. If possible,
skin and/or gill smears should be made and examined by a qualified aquarium
fish disease diagnostician. Microscopic examination is recommended and
is always essential for confirmation of a particular disease. For the
clinical signs indicated below, a particular description may b e followed
by a specific causative agent or disease in brackets. This indicates
that there is high probability that the cause of the particular disease
is the indicated agent. It should be understood that different clinical
signs can be exhibited by fishes during the course of a given disease
and that these can occur not only as a result of the age, sex and species
of the fishes affected, but also may be the result of more than one
Increased respiration; loss of normal body color; presence of discrete
white spots (freshwater or saltwater "ich"); white areas on
the body with circumscribed, reddish perimeter (Epistylis and/or bacterial
infection); scratching on tank bottom or objects, lethargy, white cottony
tufts or strands on body (fungus); dust-like, "peppered",
yellowish spots on body surface (Oodinium); whitish skin slime or filmy
body covering or patches (columnaris disease); disintegrating fins or
fin edges (fin rot); mouth "fungus" (bacterial infection);
pustules, furuncules or ulcers. For more details on fresh water "ich",
click here: THE LIFE CYCLE OF ICH
Contains formaldehyde, less than 3% by weight derived from fisheries
grade (CFC) formalin, in an aqueous solution. Made in the U.S.A.
Dosage: Use 1 teaspoon (approximately 5 ml) per 10 gallons of water
for most treatments to achieve a concentration of 10 ppm. Formalin·3
may be used at twice the usual dosage, or 2 teaspoons per 10 gallons
(see "Toxicity" and suggested "Treatment Procedures"
for qualifying information). At the rate of 1 teaspoon per 10 gallons,
4 ounces of Formalin-3 will treat 240 gallons of water.
MODE OF ACTION
The active ingredient, formaldehyde, reacts strongly with both external
and internal cellular protein to denature it. This action kills the
causative disease agent.
Formalin·3 is similar to standard formalin in that its use may
cause hypoxia in fishes due to the reduction of dissolved oxygen in
aquarium water. This condition will be most noticeable, and more likely
to occur, when the conditions of the aquarium water being treated are
initially poor (i.e., high in dissolved organics and low in dissolved
oxygen). Partial water changes prior to the use of Formalin·3
will help insure that dissolved oxygen levels will not be seriously
affected. Formalin·3 may not be safe for use with invertebrates.
Not recommended for treatment of systemic bacterial infections.
Generally, fishes under stressful conditions can tolerate as much formaldehyde
as they can in the absence of stress. Heavily parasitized fishes must
be treated with caution, and if signs of stress increase (piping or
gulping at the surface, heavy coughing, head or body jerking, or sudden
unprovoked darting about) an immediate, partial (minimum of 25%) water
change must be performed.
Treating with Formalin·3 immediately following feeding should
not be done due to the higher oxygen requirements of the metabolizing
Formalin·3 is stable indefinitely if proper storage requirements
are observed: keep closed when not in use, store at room temperature
(above 60° F and below 100° F ), do not store in direct sunlight.
Do not freeze.
Formalin·3 is compatible with Kordon's Malachite Green. While
compatible with Methylene Blue, Copper·Tru®, Acriflavine
and Chelated Copper Solution, such combinations are not recommended.
In addition Formalin·3 is compatible with AmQuel®.
The toxicity of formaldehyde varies with the number of factors including
species, age, size, and sex. Prevailing water conditions in the aquarium
should also be considered (see "Contraindications"). Caution
must be exercised when using this product at dosages higher than 20
ppm ( 2 teaspoons per 10- gallons) for long-term baths, and 200 ppm
(2 teaspoons per 1 gallon) for short-term dips. Consult the scientific
literature for additional information or treatments.
Toxicity of formaldehyde increases with an increase in the aquarium
water temperature. Treatment in tropical aquaria (whether freshwater
or marine) generally requires treatment at the lower concentration (20
There are differences between the toxicities of formaldehyde in soft
water and hard water, but these differences are of no great importance
in aquariums. Formaldehyde toxicity is not affected by salinity differences
in marine aquaria. Also pH differences do not appear to affect the toxicity
of formaldehyde. Freezing or the storing of Formalin·3 (or any
product containing formaldehyde) at temperatures below 50° F may
cause the formation of paraformaldehyde, a potentially toxic substance.
SUGGESTED TREATMENT PROCEDURES
The following procedures are suggested for both freshwater and marine
systems, unless otherwise noted. It is important to note that some activated
carbons can remove formaldehyde from water, but formaldehyde persists
for only a few hours in aquariums and does not accumulate in the water.
SUCCESSFUL DISEASE TREATMENT
Successful treatment of diseases of aquarium fishes relies upon several
factors. Firstly, as discussed above ("General Diagnosis of parasitic
Diseases of Fishes"), a proper diagnosis of the disease must be
made, and this can be one of the most difficult tasks facing an aquarist.
Secondly, the start and duration of a treatment is important. A disease
which will usually respond to a given medication may not respond if
the treatment is started too late, or if the length of treatment is
not long enough.
Lastly, the correct medication at the correct dosage must be used with
the proper treatment method. Formalin·3, for instance, will not
be effective against systemic (internal) diseases of aquarium fishes
because the therapeutic effects of the formaldehyde are restricted to
those surfaces of the fishes that contact the treated water.
Water changes are another important factor. Some medications state
that water changes are not necessary, but the fact is that water changes
are always helpful. Depleted dissolved oxygen levels are replenished,
dissolved organics are removed as are free-living disease organisms.
Treatment in a separate treatment or hospital tank, if possible, is
also important. However, this is often a nuisance and in many cases
the entire aquarium population is diseased.
TREATMENT OF FUNGAL AND PROTOZOAL DISEASES OF FISH (LONG-TERM BATH)
(a) Since there is conflicting evidence regarding the safety of formaldehyde
to biological (nitrifying) filtration, all long-term bath treatments
with Formalin·3 may (at the user's discretion) be done in a separate
hospital or treatment tank.
(b) Remove granular activated carbon from all filters used on the treatment
tank; clean or change the mechanical filter media (i.e., filter floss),
and return the filter(s) to service (minus the carbon).
(c)Make a partial water change of approximately 25%
(d) Depending upon the condition of the fishes needing treatment (i.e.,
the severity of the disease, involvement of the gills and the degree
of debilitation), the dosage should be varied from 1 to 2 teaspoons
per 10 gallons (10 to 20 ppm.) Severely diseased or debilitated fishes
should be treated at the lower dosage.
(e) The treatment may be repeated every 24 hours, by repeating all of
the above steps, including the required water changes.
(f) The dosage may be increased as the condition of the fishes being
(g) If the fishes were removed to a sepatate tank, the original aquarium
or pond should remain devoid of all fishes for a period of at least
4 days to insure all of the remaining infestation has expired.
METHOD 2 (DIP) FOR THE PREVENTION OR TREATMENT OF FISH DISEASES
(a) To a clean, non-metallic container (i.e., a plastic bucket), add
one or more gallons of fresh tap water treated with Kordon's AmQuel
. For marine fish use freshly prepared saltwater adjusted to the same
specific gravity (or salinity) as in the original tank. Make sure the
temperature in the container is identical to that in the aquarium
(b) Add 1 to 2 teaspoons of Formalin·3. This produces a concentration
of 100 to 200 ppm. formaldehyde.
(c) Agitate the solution with an airstone and adjust for a moderately
strong flow of air.
(d) Remove the fishes to be treated and deposit them in the container
for a treatment period of not more than 50 minutes. Immediately after
the treatment period, or if signs of distress are noted, remove the
fishes to a previously prepared recovery tank. The fishes may be returned
to their original tank, but the presence of the original disease-causing
agents in the tank water may result in a reoccurrence of the disease
(e) Observe recovering fishes. Make sure that tankmates do not molest
them during recovery.
(f) Repeat treatment as needed, every week. Each treatment is very stressful
to the treated fishes. Do not reuse the dip solution.
METHOD 2 (DIP) FOR FISH EGGS
(a) Proceed as above for fishes, but collect the eggs in a net or grasp
the object on which the eggs are attached and dip them for not more
than 10 seconds.
(b) Immediately return the eggs into the original hatchery tank.
(c) Do not repeat the treatment, and do not reuse the dip solution.